Virginia Commonwealth University

VCU Massey Cancer Center

What is endometrial cancer?

The lining of the uterus is called the endometrium. Cancer of the endometrium is the most common cancer of the female reproductive organs. Cancers also may originate in the muscular wall of the uterus and are called sarcomas. Uterine sarcomas are rare.  Endometrial cancer is highly curable when found early.

Anatomy of the female pelvic area

Endometrium – the lining of the uterus.

Uterus – also called the womb, the uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman’s lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum.

Ovaries – two female reproductive organs located in the pelvis.

Cervix – the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb) located between the bladder and the rectum. It forms a canal that opens into the vagina, which leads to the outside of the body.

Vagina – the passageway through which fluid passes out of the body during menstrual periods. It also is called the “birth canal.” The vagina connects the cervix (the opening of the womb, or uterus) and the vulva (the external genitalia).

Vulva – the external portion of the female genital organs.