Virginia Commonwealth University

VCU Massey Cancer Center

Anatomy

Gynecologic cancers include cancers of six parts of the female reproductive system: the endometrium, cervix, ovaries, uterus, vagina and vulva. Regular screening and early detection are important in helping to reduce incidence of these cancers. For specific information on these diseases, please search by the cancer type.

Anatomy of the female pelvic area

Endometrium – the lining of the uterus.

Uterus – also called the womb, the uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman’s lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum.

Ovaries – two female reproductive organs located in the pelvis.

Cervix – the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb) located between the bladder and the rectum. It forms a canal that opens into the vagina, which leads to the outside of the body.

Vagina – the passageway through which fluid passes out of the body during menstrual periods. It also is called the “birth canal.” The vagina connects the cervix (the opening of the womb, or uterus) and the vulva (the external genitalia).

Vulva – the external portion of the female genital organs.